Deepak Kumar Panda
The place Uddiyana or Oddiyana has played a significant role in Buddhism, specially in Tantric Buddhism. Saraha - initiator of Buddha Kapalatantra, Kambala and Padmabraja of Debarajatantra, Luipa initiator of Samputa tilaka, Lalitabajra of Krashnayamari Tantra, Gambhirabajra of Bajramatra, Kukkuri of Mahamaya, Pito of Kalachakra, Sabaripa - all have connection with Uddiyana. Uddiyana is more famous because of Indrabhuti, the king of Sambhala in Uddiyana, his sister Laxmikara and adopted son Mahapadmasambhava. Mahapadhasambhava is regarded as the second Buddha who has founded Lamaism in Tibbet.
The founder of Bajrajana Buddism, king Indrabhuti of Sambhal in Uddiyana was in deep sorrow as his only son was dead. The people were in measery as his kingdom was facing the problem of famine and drought. A lotus with thousand patels bloosmed and on it a child was found. The child got the name Padmasambhava and Indrabhuti made him the crown prince. With rain, good days and happiness returned to Sambhal. Padmasambhava became an youth and got married to Bhasadhara, daughter of Chandrakumar the king of Simhala. But once while dancing the trident fail from his hand and it killed the son of minister Kamata. As per law, the king ordered Padmasambhava to leave the palace and directed him to roam and stay in charnel grounds, wandering in the cremation grounds. Padma got knowledge from Dakinis. Then he got different teachings and learned tantras from Prabhahasti, Gruhyabudha, Garab Dorje, Anand, Asta Vidyahara, Srisaya etc. After enlightenment, he went to Sahor or Jahor, where he met princess Mandaraba. Both Padma and the princess went to Maratika cave for sadhana and stayed there for three months. Thereafter, they came to Uddiyana and stayed for thirteen years. Then Padmasambhava went to Nepal. Seven member delegation team sent by king Trisang Detasena of Tibbet met Padma and invited him to Tibbet. Padma went there and founded Lamaism. He became guru Rimpoche. First matha was established at Samye with first statue of Padmasambhava. After fiftyfive years and six months Padma left Tibbet leaving twentyfive desciples.
To locate or identify Uddiyana and Sambhala many eminent historians have put best of their efforts and have tried hard. Some of them are in opinion that Uddiyana was at Swat Vally. Others have tried to find it in Assam or Bengal. But there are several arguments and reasons to believe that odisha is Uddiyana and Sambalpur is Sambhala of eighth centuary
It is a well-known fact that the word Odisha has been derived from Oda, Odra or Udra. The meaning of odra is rice eating people. In Manu's writing and in Mahabharata as well as in other Sanskrit texts we can find these words Udra or Odra. Sarla Das has mentioned Odra Rashtra Mandala in his 'Mahabharata'. Brahmeswar temple inscription of Bhubaneswar has stated that Somavamshi king Janmejaya killed the king of Odra desha in war. After this war Somabamshi or Keshri dynasty rule started in whole of Odisha and neighboring areas. According to ups and downs in history, the place is mentioned as Udra desha or rashtra to Odra Visaya. In different Linguistic texts this place is called in different ways. We find oddak in Pall Apajana. In old Greek texts it has been described as Oretas. In Persian or Arabic, it is called Urshin or Ursfin. Al Beruni has mentioned Urd Bisau. When British came it became Orissa. The north Indians call it Udisa. The Bengalis says Udissa. Even people of western Odisha used to call it Udsa. The word Odisha has got first ever mention in 1436 AD inscription of Kapilendra Dev in Jagannath temple and Lingaraj temple. Kalika Purana says "Odrapitham parswametu tathei chandeswara sivam Katyayani Jagannatham Udresaong cha Prajujayet". Bhaumakara queen of Odra has compared herself with Katyayani. All grants given during Bhaumakara rule has got Odra desha or Odra visaya mentioned. In Bouddha Sadhanamala one can find Uddiyan instead of Uddiyana. It is interesting to note that Chaturasiti Siddha Prabriti has mentioned Indrabhuti as the king of Odibhisa.
We can easily come into the conclussion, that there was different devriviation of Odra or Odisha and Uddiyana is one of them.
Marichi. Kurukulla, Lokeswara, Urdhwapala. Bajrabarahi were being worshiped in Uddiyana. These idols are found in large number along with Manjushree, Padmapani, Bajrapani, Trailokya, Bijiya, Kambala, Heruka, Bhairabi, Chamunda in Odisha. Kurukulla and Bajrabarahi idols are not found in any other places except Odisha. Taranath has mentioned that pitho of Kalachakra Tantra was sent to Sambhala who brought many tantras from Sambhala which was tought to the students in Ratnagiri. Alongwith Ratnagiri there are several Buddhist sites in Odisha such as Udayagiri, Lalitgiri, Bajragiri, Langudi, Panturi, Jaema, Radhanagar in Jajpur district, Ayodhya, Solampur, Jayrampur, Khadipada, Kupari, Mohanapada, Bardhanpur of Batesore, Khiching of Mayurbhanj, Nibaran, Kurum of Pud, Sitabinji of Keonjhar, Tarapur of Jagatsinghpur, Buddhakhol of Ganjam, Rameswar, Kendupatana, Choudwar of Cuttack, Ranipur Jharial, Salebhata, Maraguda, Boudh. Shyamsundarpur, Paragalpur, Ganiapali (Mechalinda Vihar), Parimalagiri (Pa-Mo-Lo-Ki-Li as mentioned by Hiuen -Tsang) etc. At the time when Hiuen -Tsang visited Odisha all most all people of the state were Buddhist and there were one hundered Boudha Vihara. According to an inscription Bajrapani was from Mangalakostha of Uddiyana. This Mangalakostha can be identified with Mangalapura near Jajpur.
According to Nepalese Tantra belief, Sariputta was told by Buddha that he will come down to the earth as Padmasambhava in future and that his gaining of knowledge place will be Viraja. Kubajika Tantra says Viraja was the goddes of Uddiyana. Jajpur in Odisha is now also regarded as Viraja Khetra or the place of Viraja.
Now let's have a glance at Charjyageeti. Fifty dohas are written by 25 Siddhacharyas. They are Luipa, Sabaripa, Kanhupa and others. In which language Charjageeti is written ? Not in the language which was practicised in Swat Valley. The language is purely of Eastern India. The linguistic experts says, during the course of emergence of local languages there was a time when whole of Eastern India was using this language in transitional period. Because we find a congregation of Odiya, Bengali, Assamee and Maithili words of today. Even there are Sambalpuri words, the language of Western Odisha spoken by one and half crores people. Adh raati, Andhari, Khambha, Khunti, Khaal, Gunjuri mall, Gharein, Aamhen. Tumhen, Haate, Pasen, Dihen, Parke, Maarmi, Bujhsi, Haandi, Dull, Duar, Meli, Tohar, Uncha, Daari, Gohal for Guhal and even Bhusku means fat. These words are very common in Sambalpuri language.
Indrabhuti the profounder of Bajrayana Buddhism is the first person who have mentioned the word Jagannath. In his Gyanasiddhi Jagannath is mentioned in the opening verse and in four other verses.
Indrabhuti has described Jagannath as the avatar of Buddha. He did mention Jagannath . Jagannath is the pricipal idol of Odisha.
|Padmasambhaba Guru Rinpoche|
Anangabajra, the guru of Indrabhuti has also mentioned Jagannath in his Pragyonpaaya Binischaya Siddhi. In this text we find the name of Subhakara Dev. Subhakara Dev -I was the Bhaumakara king of Odraka or Toshali. A letter and text Gandhabyuha was sent to the Chinese king in AD 795 by him. His copper plates are found in Odisha. His name is mentioned in the Padmapani Abalokiteswara idol kept at Bhubaneswar Museum.
Indrabhuti's sister Laxmikara, the founder of Sahajayana Boudha dharma was the wife of Seol and doughter-in-law of king Jalendra of Lankapuri. Lankapuri is identified with Subamapura or Sonepur of West Odisha. This place is a wellknown tantra-pitha. In the last part of the 10th century while giving two copper plate grants from Subarnapura, Kumar Someswara Dev has declaired himself as the ruler of Paschima Lanka. Now also goddess Lankeswari is being worshiped at Subarnapura or Sonepur. Padmasambhava was married to Mandaraba of Sahor or Jahor. This place is identified with Kendujhor of Odisha. A hill is there at Kendujhar which bears the name Jaharai Sandhaa.
According to "Chandamarichitantra Ratnabali" Sambalaka of Uddiyana was situated at the river bank of Mahanadi with full of diamonds. Ptolemy has mentioned that in mandalai, near river manad, Sambalaka is a big city. Gibbon has stated that Rome was supplied with diamonds from the mines of Sumelpur in Bengal . Barahamihira, Chandeswar, Tipanthata, Hiuen -Tsang, General Conningham, Tobarniyar, Prof Ball, O'malley and many more have written about the place Sambaipur where diamonds are found from river Mahanadi. There is a long history of Dimond collection from river mahanadi at Sambalpur. The Sambalpur king of 16th, 17th Century are known as Hirakhanda Chatrapati maharaj. In 1799 One Mr. T. Motte was sent by Lord Clive to have a visit of the Dimond mines of Sambalpur, who has written an account on it. In Asiatic Journal published from London in 1934 Rahul Ramakrityayana has identified Sambhal with Sambalpur.
So. the historical background and existence of Sambalpur alongwith Odisha, Odivisha, Odra, Udra, Uddiyana etc., mentioning of Jagannath by Indrabhuti, language of Charyageeti, relationship of Biraja khetra orjajpurwith Padmasambhava and other mentioned facts are sufficient to say that uddiyana is Odisha and Sambhal is Sambalpur. Dr. Nabin Kumar Sahu by his elaborate writting in the book 'Buddhism in Orissa' has proved this. Mr. H. P. Shastri, Dr. Binoyatosh Bhattacharya, Prof. Winternitz, Dr. P. Cordier are of the belief that Uddiyana is the same as Odisha.
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